The terms »child« and »young persons« are currently defined differently by various regulations. Pursuant to the Family Act the age of majority is 18. Pursuant to the Ombudsman for Children Act, a child is any person below the age of eighteen years. Other regulations, for instance, the Criminal Code, defines a child, as referred to in this Code, as a person who has not reached the age of eighteen years. Pursuant to the Juvenile Courts Act a minor shall be a person whose age, at the time when the offence was committed, was between fourteen and eighteen, and a young adult shall be a person whose age, at the time when the offence was committed, was between eighteen and twenty one.
Pursuant to the Family Act, parents must not leave a child of pre-school age without the supervision of a person older than sixteen. This Act also prescribes the right and obligation of parents to prohibit their child under sixteen years of age from going out at night without the escort of themselves or other adults whom they trust. Going out at night means going out between the hours of 11 p.m. and 5 a.m.
Children are not prohibited from visiting restaurants. There is no age restriction.
However, pursuant to the Hospitality and Catering Industry Act, it is prohibited to serve, i.e. allow the consumption of alcoholic beverages, other drinks and/or beverages containing alcohol to persons under 18 years of age in hospitality and catering facilities (hotels, restaurants, bars etc.).
In principle, children are not prohibited from visiting places for entertainment, such as dance halls, but this is subject to the limitation mentioned under Questions 2 and 4.
Childrens visits to places for entertainment are limited by their parents' right and duty to forbid a child under the age of sixteen from going out at night without their escort or other adults whom they trust (see the answer under 2).
Minors are prohibited by law from entering certain facilities carrying out activities that are potentially harmful to children and their wellbeing. The Act on Games of Chance prescribes bans of participation of minors: The visit to a casino and the participation in a game shall be allowed to adults only, who are obliged to identify themselves (Art. 43). The visit and the participation in slot machine games is permitted only to adults of the age of majority who at the organiser's request are obliged to prove their age with an ID document (Art. 60).
lt is prohibited to receive payments for bets from persons under the age of 18.
The provisions of the Trade Act prohibit the sale of alcoholic beverages and other drinks containing alcohol to persons under the age of 18. (see also the answer under 3).
In Croatia, general regulations regarding the protection of minors in this field are specified in the Act on Audiovisual Activities. Furthermore, the Croatian Audiovisual Center adopted the Ordinance on Classification of Audiovisual Works, which regulates the procedure for rating audiovisual works (films) and their marking (the categories are: all ages, 12, 15, and 18) with regard to their suitability for different age group, to protect minors from the contentinappropriate for their age. ln practice, it serves to alert parents of potentially unsuitable material for children, as there is no formal monitoring and control regarding the access to public film screenings.
In addition, it is prohibited to distribute, sell or rent to the minors videogames whose category is inappropriate for their age. More information on the implementation of regulations relating to the protection of children and young people from audiovisual content can be obtained from the Croatian Audiovisual Centre, by e-mail: email@example.com.
Pursuant to the Criminal Code (Art. 165), whoever to a child under the age of fifteen sells, gives a gift, presents or publicly displays, by means of a computer system, network or media for the storage of computer data or in some other way makes accessible the files, pictures, audio-visual content or other objects of pornographic content or shows him or her a pornographic performance shall be punished by imprisonment (six months to five years).
Pursuant to the Act on Restricting the Use of Tobacco and Tobacco-Related Products, in the Republic of Croatia it is forbidden to smoke in all closed public places
Smoking is allowed in designated areas in certain places for accommodation of guests, in designated areas in psychiatric hospitals and other health and social care providers.
The Act prohibits the sale of tobacco and tobacco-related products to persons under the age of 18. In addition, persons under the age of 18 are not allowed to sell these products.
A salesperson who suspects that a customer is younger than 18 may require such a customer to prove that he or she has attained the age of majority, by producing the relevant document. lt is forbidden to sell tobacco products on the Internet or by means of cigarette vending machines.
Minors are not prohibited from visiting Internet cafés and using their services (however, we still do not have complete information on the level of their protection there).
A new Act on Acquisition and Possession of Weapons (Official Gazette No. 94/18) entered into force in Croatia in November 2018.
Pursuant to the Act on Acquisition and Possession of Weapons it is forbidden to give weapons for use of children, except in situations specifically prescribed by the Act (Article 35).
Pursuant to the Criminal Code (Art. 158), a sexual intercourse or equivalent sexual act with a child under the age of 15 is a criminal offence (imprisonment from three to twelve years).
Whoever engages in sexual intercourse or an equivalent sexual act with a child over the age of fifteen with whose upbringing, education, custody, spiritual guidance or care he or she has been entrusted, shall be punished by imprisonment from one to eight years (Art. 159.)
The same punishment shall be inflicted on a relative by blood in direct line or by adoption, a step-father or step-mother.
Pursuant to the provisions of the Foreigners Act, an foreigner may work in the Republic of Croatia further to an issued stay and work permit or a work registration certificate, unless provided otherwise in this Act.
Pursuant to the provisions of the Labour Act, it shall be prohibited to employ a person under fifteen, of fifteen or above fifteen years of age and under eighteen years of age who is still subject to compulsory full-time elementary schooling.
Should they encounter any problems or difficulties, children may seek help from the police, centers for social welfare, the Office of the Ombudsman for Children, embassies and consular offices, health and other institutions, depending on the problem they have encountered.